In the centuries after the life of Muhammad, Muslim armies poured out into all surrounding areas, bringing the lands from India to Spain under their control. With this huge amount of land under their control, the Umayyad (and later, the Abbasid) Caliphates allowed merchants and scholars to travel easily through western Eurasia, bringing goods and knowledge which the Muslims greatly expanded upon through the Caliphate and outward to less advanced regions, such as Western Europe. In 751, papermaking from China made its way to the West through Muslims. Trade introduced Islam to the Africans. In the Middle East, the success of Islam meant that culture would be changed forever. Even after the decline of the Abassid Caliphate, Islam would remain as one of the base institutions of the region. Future states of the region, such as the Safavid, Seljuk, and Ottoman and Mughal Empires, were all “Islamic Empires”.


The Rashidun Caliphate (632-661)
The Umayyad Caliphate (661-750) – Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate
The Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba in Islamic Spain (756-929-1031)
The Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258) – Successor of the Umayyad Caliphate
The Fatimid Caliphate (910-1171)
The Ayyubid dynasty (1171-1260)
The Mamluk Caliphate (Bahri dynasty then succeeded by Burji dynasty) (1250–1517)
The Ottoman Caliphate (1517–1923)

Ohannes Umed Behzad. Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha defeats the Holy League of Charles V under the command of Andrea Doria at the Battle of Preveza (1538)

Regional empires

Europe and Russia


Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929-1031)
The Emirate of Bari (847-871)
The Emirate of Sicily (965-1072)


The Volga Bulgaria (922-1236)
The Golden Horde (1251–1502)
The Kazan Khanate (1438-1552)
The Astrakhan Khanate (1466-1556)
The Qasim Khanate (1452-1681)
The Crimean Khanate (1441–1783)
The Bashkirs

Middle East


The Danishmends Dynasty (1071-1178)
The Mengujekids Dynasty (1072-1277)
The Saltukids Dynasty (1071-1202)
The Artuqids Dynasty (1101-1409)
The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm (1077-1308)
The Uyunid dynasty (1076–1240)
The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923)
The Khwarezm-Shâh Dynasty
The Tahirid dynasty
The Khwarezmian Empire
The Saffarid dynasty
The Samanid Dynasty
The Seljuk dynasty
The Giray dynasty
The Ilkhanate
The Timurid dynasty
The Ayyubid Dynasty
The Ak Koyunlu
The Kara Koyunlu
The Persian Empire, under the Safavid dynasty (1502–1736), Afsharid dynasty, and Qajar dynasty
The Muzaffarids
The Shirvanshah
The Ghurids
The Ghaznavid Empire
The Great Seljuq Empire
The Buyid dynasty
The Rassids of Yemen
The Rasulid of Yemen
The Tulunids

Central Asia

The Chagatai Khanate

The Siberia Khanate
The State of Yarkand
The Shaybanids

Africa & Spain

Excluding Egypt, which is considered part of Middle East

The Mali Empire (1230s–1600s)
The Songhai Empire (1340–1591)
The Adal Sultanate (1415–1555)
The Almoravid dynasty (1040–1147) of Morocco
The Almohad dynasty (1121–1269) of Morocco
The Ajuran Empire (13th century–17th-century)
The Fulani Empire of Sokoto
The Fulani or Fulbe Empire of Macina of Seku Amadu
The Fulani or Fulbe Empire of El Hajj Oumar Tall
The Fulani or Fulbe Empire of Boundou of Malick Daouda Sy
The Kilwa Sultanate (10th century-1517)
The Sultanate of Oman
The Aghlabid dynasty of Ifriqiya Tunisia, East-Algeria, West-Libya and Sicily
The Umayyad of Spain in North-Africa during war with the Fatimid’s
Taifa dynasties of Islamic Spain
The Hafsid dynasty (1229–1574)
The Alaouite dynasty of Morocco
The Marinid dynasty of Morocco
The Rustamid dynasty
The Wattasid dynasty of Morocco
The Saadi dynasty of Morocco (1511–1628)
The Dervish State (1896–1920)

South Asia

The Ali Raja
The Sultanate of Mysore (1704–1799)
The Delhi Sultanate in Northern India (1206–1526)
The Bengal Sultanate in Bengal (1352-1576)
The Mughal Empire in India (1526–1857)
The Khilji Dynasty (1290–1320)
The Lodhi Dynasty (1451–1526)
The Mamluk dynasty of Delhi (1206–1290)
The Durrani Empire (1747–1823)
The Suri dynasty (1540–1556)
The Asaf Jahi Dynasty (1720–1948)
The Nawab of Awadh (1732–1856)
The Bahmani Sultanate in Deccan (1347–1527)
The Berar Sultanate in Deccan (1490–1572)
The Bidar Sultanate in Deccan (1492–1619)
The Ahmednagar Sultanate in Deccan (1490–1636)
The Qutb Shahi dynasty in Deccan (1518–1687)
The Bijapur Sultanate in Deccan (1490–1686)
The Sayyid dynasty (1414–1451)
The Sultanate of Bengal (1336–1576)
The Sultanate of Jaunpur (1394–1479)
The Gujarat Sultanate (1407–1573)
The Malwa Sultanate (1401–1531)
The Sultanate of Kashmir (1346–1586)
The Soomro Dynasty (1026–1351)
The Samma Dynasty (1335–1520)
The Talpur dynasty (1783–1843)
The Kalhora Dynasty (1701–1783)
The Nawab of Carnatic (1690 till Date)

Spain, Cordoba, Mosque-Cathedral, Author Berthold Werner

Southeast Asia

The Bruneian Empire
The Sultanate of Johor
The Sultanate of Maguindanao
The Sultanate of Kelantan
The Sultanate of Terengganu
The Sultanate of Perlis
The Kedah Sultanate
The Sultanate of Pahang
The Sultanate of Perak
The Sultanate of Negeri Sembilan
The Sultanate of Selangor
The Sulu Sultanate
The Sultanate of Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat
The Aceh Sultanate
The Sultanate of Deli
The Sultanate of Siak Sri Indrapura
The Sultanate of Riau
The Sultanate of Indragiri
The Sultanate of Jambi
The Sultanate of Palembang Darussalam
The Sultanate of Banten
The Sultanate of Cirebon
The Sultanate of Demak
The Sultanate of Surakarta
The Sultanate of Mataram
The Sultanate of Pontianak
The Sultanate of Banjarmasin
The Sultanate of Kutai
The Sultanate of Bulungan
The Sultanate of Gowa
The Sultanate of Ternate
The Sultanate of Tidore
The Sultanate of Bacan
The Sultanate of Jailolo
The Sultanate of Buton